top of page

A New Age: Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto

Updated: Apr 5, 2020

As the world wakes to the dawn of the year 2020, much has been made of the planetary cycles that will colour the year and describe the nature of the time to come. The first of these is the Saturn-Pluto conjunction of January 2020. The Saturn-Pluto cycle lasts between 32-37 years with a wider orb than other planetary pair cycles with Saturn. This is primarily due to Pluto's elliptical orbit, whereas Saturn (like other planets) has more of a circular orbit around the Sun.

The average Saturn Pluto conjunction cycle lasts an average of thirty three years but varies as both planets have rather eccentric orbits. Therefore the length of time that the two planets take to travel from conjunction to conjunction varies. Another factor in the variation of the length of the cycle occurs if Saturn is in its retrograde phase at the time of the conjunction. This was the case during the 1982-83 conjunction and when this happens as much as two years is added to the length of the cycle. Saturn, ruler of boundaries and limitations defined human development and potential for thousands of years. There were limits within the social, moral and religious contexts of the times. With the discovery of Pluto, these boundaries are being pushed aside as humans taste power beyond their wildest dreams.

The Saturn-Pluto cycle has now been in collective consciousness for 70 years and 2 complete cycles. What have we experienced and how this affects our own development lies in its unfoldment.

The influence of the Saturn-Pluto cycle can often bring about the crumbling of social and civic structures such as government, notions of statehood, laws, customs, and traditions and so on. This cycle dovetails fifteen times during the five hundred year Neptune Pluto cycle and occurs roughly three times every century.

The Saturn-Pluto Story so Far

The last three Saturn-Pluto conjunctions occurred:

5 Oct 1914 at 2° Cancer (Retrograde hit 1 Nov 1914, Direct 20 May 1915) characterised by:

  • Devastation of War - World War I raged from August 1914 to November 1918 changing the European landscape, the fall of European monarchy including the Russian and the German monarchies, and the end of the age of empire with the dissolution of the Ottoman and the Astro-Hungarian empires.

  • Development of psychoanalysisFreud and Jung gained prominence during this period and their influence helped establish the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

  • Discovery of Plutothe discovery of the ninth planet ultimately became the first of an entirely new part of the solar system dubbed the Kuiper Belt.

  • Emergence of Individualism - creation of the modern Western world, a development of Enlightenment liberal values.

  • Splitting of the atom - the splitting of the nucleus of an atom in a fully controlled manner, exposing the inherent energy and power.

  • Great Depression - severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930’s. devastating effects in countries both rich and poor. International trade plunged by more than 50%.

  • End of the gold standard - The UK pound left the gold standard in 1931 and the USA dollar in 1933. This meant that a number of currencies of countries that historically had performed a large amount of their trade in sterling were pegged to sterling instead of to gold.[1]

11 Aug 1947 at 13° Leo characterised by:

  • Development of nuclear capabilitythe development of nuclear power as a replacement for power generated from coal and gas as well as a deterrent to war.

  • Birth of nations through ‘partition’ of existing lands viz India-Pakistan [2] The Indian sub-continent was partitioned between India and Pakistan and the establishment of both as individual sovereignties. Partition was done along sectarian lines with the predominant Muslim north forming the nexus of the new nation of Pakistan while India retained its Hindu majority. Israel-Palestine – saw the displacement of millions of people and widespread sectarian violence. [3]

  • Emergence of Communism as a cultural, political and military force – countries in Asia and Eastern Europe coming under the aegis of Moscow and Beijing.

  • Communist Chinacame into being as a nation with the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China. [4]

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) - begins operations with the aim of fostering global economic growth and reduce world poverty. [5]

  • Cold War – political and military divide between the democratic nations led by the USA and the Communist bloc led by the USSR in the West and China on the East.

. 8 Nov 1982 at 27° Libra characterised by:

  • End of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wallbrought an end to the political, military and cultural divide in Europe, uniting Germany for the first time since the previous cycle.

  • Technology and communication revolution - the development of the personal computer, mobile technology and the popularisation of the internet and the World Wide Web.

  • Economic rationalisationsaw the development of policies which prioritised economic rationales to determine the processes of government thus putting a dollar value not only on economic endeavours but also on medical, social and cultural undertakings.

  • Re-drawing up of economic and political boundariescame about as a consequence of the break-up of the USSR and zones of influence.

The overall flavour of these previous Saturn-Pluto periods pinpoint six major trends:

  • Wealth – the evolving nature of wealth, major economic restructures, an emphasis on control and limitation.

  • Power – challenges and changes to power structures, destruction of old structures through violence, upheaval and unrest.

  • Boundaries – testing, destruction and creation of boundaries which emphasise total control or destruction.

  • Extremism – related to the above when behaviour, actions and outcomes display extreme or fundamentalist creeds or beliefs and are used as a reason to either overturn or maintain the status quo.

  • Purge [6] – the need to cleanse what is believed to be tainted, unclean or impure in order to establish a purer form, perhaps more aligned to a dominant or controlling ideal.

  • Resurrection [7] – the result of the above leading to a renaissance, reinvention of structures, systems and standards.

The New Saturn Pluto Cycle

On January 12, 2020, Saturn joined Pluto at 22° Capricorn in a single, and dramatic, pass. Looking at the chart of the conjunction set in several locations, we may be able to get a glimpse at how it is unfolding. What is happening now, our responses and its effects will certainly be felt not only this year but over the next 37 years.


The year dawned with bushfire conflagrations on the Australian mainland devastating numerous towns all over the country, displacing tens of thousands of people and killing thousands of head of livestock and millions of wildlife. The economic, social and political impact is still being assessed but it has put governments on notice by a concerned, angered and betrayed population. Hot on the heels of the bushfire crisis, the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic and its sweeping economic and political devastation across the country has seen a conservative government reach out for more socialist tools such as wage subsidies, increased benefits, and business bailouts. At the same time, draconian measures to police social distancing and isolation policies, quarantine measures and rationing as well as to guarantee supply of necessities has seen the erosion of some basic democratic principles of free association, social mobility and employment. Employment in many industries and sectors has disappeared overnight leaving a population shocked and reeling with uncertainty at the speed of the changes in circumstances.

The chart set for the capital, Canberra features the Saturn-Pluto conjunction and the Capricorn stellium which includes Jupiter, the Sun and Mercury in the second house of resources and wealth. Australia’s economy has been severely eroded, first by the natural calamities of both bushfires and recent storms which have caused major damage to homes, businesses and infrastructure in certain regions coupled with the national impact of the Covid-19 pandemic.

With Sagittarius on the Ascendant and Mars rising, there is an air of combat and destruction in the foreground as well as speed and ruthlessness. The result of Martian actions will affect wealth and resources - Jupiter, dispositor and lord of the Ascendant and of the angular Mars, is in the second house of wealth and resources. Jupiter in Capricorn in the sign of its Fall, is debilitated and will also affect it’s rulership of the fourth house of agriculture, the land and the weather. Neptune sitting in the fourth adds to the unstable and confusing nature of the nation’s weather with extremes not experienced since meteorological records began last century. The economic impact of these events both locally and nationally are already high and will continue to climb for at least the next two to four years. The loaded second house echoes the concerns that have been echoing through the corridors of power about the economic and financial impact of first the bushfires and now the pandemic. The interesting thing is that this over-arching concern for the economy as news of the spread of the virus intensified was one of the major factors which kept the Government from enacting lockdown procedures early on. It wasn’t until the second week in March that social isolation measures and travel restrictions were imposed. As transiting Mars entered Capricorn, the sign of its exaltation, in the middle of February, and started to hit the Saturn-Pluto stellium, we saw the exponential increase and spread of the virus not only in Australia, but all over the world.

Saturn disposits the Capricorn second house, the Saturn Pluto conjunction and the Capricorn stellium as well as the third house of the media and public debate. These events have generated some draconian reactions by the government to media reports generally and to some journalists in particular. It has also seen divisive debate fuelled by conservative reactions to the extreme conditions generated first by the impact of climate change and the bushfires and then the Covid-19 pandemic, all of which have suddenly become a reality for the Australian people.

The sixth house of labour and public health has Taurus on the cusp, ruled by a Venus in the last degrees of Aquarius also in the third house. The position of a planet in the last degrees of a sign heralds some sort of ending. What we have seen so far is a total redefinition and restructure of the labour force with most people either unemployed, working from home or facing the risks of being on the front line.

Uranus in the Conjunction chart sixth house emphasises this instability and uncertainty. Public health is at the centre of the current crisis and at the writing of this piece, transiting Venus, lord of the sixth is in the last degrees of Taurus (28 degrees 26 minutes) and will soon ingress into Gemini where it will oppose the Conjunction chart Mars on the 11th April, over the Easter weekend. I suggest that this will see a sudden and dramatic increase of cases as well as an increased impact on the labour market and public health resources. Venus also rules the eleventh house of Parliament and elected representatives. Venus will also move quickly to conjunct Uranus within a few days suggesting that the instability within Parliament or legislation impacts on public health, labour markets and also the military.

United Kingdom

The UK stopped being a member of the European Union (EU) after 23:00 GMT on 31 January 2020. There are more questions about what its effect will be on the world economy. [8] More importantly it has highlighted cracks in the European Union. The chart, set for London, features a Leo Ascendant with the Moon in the first and the stellium in Capricorn featuring the Saturn Pluto conjunction in the sixth house of labour and obligation as well as public health and public service. With the UK exit from the European Union, it has raised the spectre of an unknown future especially for employment generally, the labor force underpinned by Euro citizens and the NHS, the public health system.

The impact of Covid-19 on the UK has seen public health become the major headline since the first cases at the end of January and as Mars hit the stellium we saw the increase in cases (this applied generally) but as Mars ingresses into Aquarius and opposes the Conjunction chart Ascendant (1 Leo) it is set to leave more collateral damage. The Prince of Wales was diagnosed with the virus as Mars squared his Moon (0 Taurus) but more concerning is the Queen, whose Moon at 12 Leo, is in the firing line of Mars. It is interesting that the Conjunction chart for the UK features a Leo Moon a few degrees shy of the Queen’s natal Moon, suggesting that she will feature prominently in this period.

The Leo Moon is also the exalted lord of the Taurus MC which features a conjunction from Uranus suggesting that the stability of Government or even the Monarchy may be an issue in this period. If we consider that the reigning head of state, Her Majesty Elizabeth II is in her mid nineties, there is a great likelihood that there will be a changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace. The Moon at 17 Leo is also conjunct the Queen’s Moon which is at 12 Leo. Her Sun at 0 Taurus and Charles, the Prince of Wales and heir to the throne, also has his Moon at 0 Taurus, both of which conjunct the Conjunction chart MC.

The lord of the Leo Ascendant and dispositor of the Moon in the first, is the Capricorn Sun in a tight conjunction to Saturn-Pluto suggesting a period of hardship, introspection and insecurity. Saturn also rules the Aquarian seventh house of foreign affairs, international treaties and disputes. Brexit has generated a lot of conflict especially with the EU and it has certainly put the UK on a different standing especially with regard to trade with other nations such as the USA and Australia as well as strategic alliances. No longer tied to the European apron strings, the UK must now work harder to generate markets as well as restructure its economic framework and political alliances.

The angular Leo Moon rules the twelfth house of institutions, incarceration and secret societies so we may see the exposure of perhaps State secrets which have been previously kept under wraps. This may include Royal memoirs, war and government documents. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II and so it is likely that we may see the revelations related to the war, war time policies or activities or even more recent events. The reality of isolation is also emphasized with the strict isolation requirements for the British population.

Overall, the Saturn Pluto period will result in some significant changes for the British monarchy and government as a consequence of Brexit, the Covid-19 virus and its fall-out. Also, the popularity of the monarch-to-be both with the people and the dominant political perspective is highlighted. The impact of the changing labour force together with the impact of the Corona Virus on the public health system will see a total restructure of the UK’s priorities especially its relationships with Europe and the vexed issue of hard and soft borders. This will be a point of contention where Scotland and Northern Ireland are concerned, placing pressure on the ‘united’ part of the United Kingdom.

United States of America

The impact of the Saturn Pluto cycle is unfolding in the ninth house of national beliefs, religion, the church, justice, the law, publishing, higher education and overseas trade. So far the USA has weathered a Presidential impeachment which tested the credibility of witnesses called, especially as it involved foreign interference in an election. The other important development is that the nation and its leaders prepare themselves for the quadrennial Presidential elections due to be held on the first Tuesday in November. But before that can happen the effect of the Covid-19 virus on America has seen an escalation and death rate which has surpassed all countries to date.

The chart features Uranus rising with the Taurus Ascendant suggesting unexpected upheavals and surprises. The lord of the Ascendant is Venus in Aquarius in the tenth house of Government suggesting that the upheavals and upsets will be realized in the public arena. Venus is in the last degrees and void of course, in the terms of Saturn indicates that the impact of these upheavals and upsets may be even more unexpected and may place the country either ‘out of step’ or discordant with national or current expectations and beliefs.

The Conjunction chart’s Venus at 28 Aquarius sits opposite Donald Trump’s Mars at 28 Leo and both will be hit by transiting Mars in mid-May suggesting that the President may be personally affected by the virus. Leading up to this, transiting Mars will cross Trump’s Ascendant at 17 Leo (close to the degree of Queen Elizabeth II’s Moon) in mid-April and then go to oppose his natal Mars.

Additionally, the Conjunction chart Ascendant at 1 Taurus echoes Trumps’ MC at 8 Taurus. Uranus is also transiting Trump’s natal 10th house suggesting that his public position is unstable and unpredictable and is subject to unexpected upsets and destabiliszation.

The Capricorn stellium adorns the Conjunction chart’s ninth house of national beliefs, the law, justice, higher education, publishing and overseas trade. The impact of this conjunction and subsequent celestial occurrences will undermine what the nation stands for especially when Americans are seeing field hospitals erected in Central Park in New York City and refrigerated prime movers hired to house cadavers. It is expected that as a consequence of the pandemic there will be questions raised about American ideals and beliefs which may be realized or expressed through the upcoming elections in November.

As the current President, Donald Trump waits to see who will be his opponent as the Democrats decide on their candidate. The major contenders are Joe Biden, who is running on the legacy of the eight years served alongside President Barack Obama and has proposed advancing that legacy on key issues like health care and the climate crisis. [9] The other candidate is Bernie Sanders whose agenda items once considered radical — Medicare for all,” a $15 minimum wage, tuition-free public college — have now been embraced by many Democrats. Running for president a second time, Sanders is one of the most-well known candidates in the race. But he remains something of an outsider: A self-described democratic socialist, he has never joined the party he hopes to lead. [10]

The Covid-19 virus has put a virtual halt to the campaign and since mid-March when the President declared a state of emergency, the USA had reported cases in all fifty states just as transiting Mars hit the first of the Capricorn stellium. As I write this, Mars has ingressed into Aquarius in the Conjunction chart’s tenth house, suggesting that there will be battles, contentions and public bloodshed of a metaphorical or physical nature as a consequence of the unfolding of events.


The Coronavirus crisis [11], with its epicentre in China, has seen the World Health Organization (WHO) declare a global health emergency and pandemic. At the time of writing, globally, more than 50,000 people have died, over a million people have been diagnosed with the virus, and I excess of 250,000 have recovered.[12] The new when Chinese state broadcaster CCTV reported in a broadcast airing on 12 January 2020 that a “new viral outbreak was first detected in the city of Wuhan, China, on 12 December 2019.”[13]

As one of the nations born at the Saturn-Pluto conjunction of 1947 [14], the People’s Republic of China had a lot on line when the news of this pandemic made international headlines. China has sought to control the virus, its spread and information about it. This has led to a lot of speculation and rumour about both its origins and the extent and impact of the pandemic on the Chinese mainland.

The Conjunction chart set for Beijing, has Libra rising, with Venus in Aquarius in a very tight trine to the Libran Ascendant. This can suggest that the realization of this centers around fifth house issues of arts, fashion, leisure, sport and children. We can read this in a Venusian light i.e. wanting what is produced to be light-hearted, easy to take in or palatable hence, what we have seen is the seeming obfustication of statistics and data on infection and mortality rates. The Capricorn stellium is clustered in the fourth house of the opposition agriculture, rural sector and the weather.

It is interesting to note that the ‘opposition’ came from Chinese doctors who, when they went to report on the discovery of an unknown virus, were targeted by the Chinese government in an attempt to cover up the outbreak in the early weeks. The iron-fisted Saturn combined with powerful Pluto wields a very big stick. The other interesting point is that the exalted lord of the Libran Ascendant is Saturn hence reinforcing the very strong Saturnian flavour already evident in the Capricorn stellium and echoing the oppressive tactics of regimes like China’s.

The Leo Moon rules the Cancer MC of the Conjunction chart and will have transiting Mars in opposition in late April suggesting that this could presage confrontation with rivals or allies as Mars rules the Aries seventh house of alliances and enemies. China has already started to hit back at suggestions by the likes of Donald Trump, who have labeled Covid-19 as the “Chinese virus”. There have been veiled threats of trade sanctions and other possible deterrents.

Jupiter Joins the Party

As the Saturn-Pluto conjunction continues its journey, Jupiter joins the fray with the first conjunction to Pluto in April, then June and finally in November. Jupiter then proceeds to conjunct Saturn at 0 Aquarius in late December 2020. Jupiter always brings an amplification of the matters at hand, and as we have discussed, Saturn-Pluto has brought/is bringing out some very destructive forces pitting the status quo against forces of change and in the present state, the forces of nature are shaking the world’s structures and challenging the basis of our financial, political and social constructs.

Jupiter’s transit through the sign of its Fall [15] has literally blown everything out of proportion, bringing a ‘fall’ with the Corvid-19 pandemic but also the heavy-handed approaches to managing the contagion as well as controlling the population. This has extended from direct quarantine and isolation orders, to the closing of national and internal borders, the sanctioning and punitive responses to perceived as well as actual violations as well as the emergence of a very strong ‘stranger danger’ outlook. This has seen the ‘foreigner’ being shunned and abandoned as the state looks after their own. In many societies and countries, refugees, migrants and other transient populations such as tourists, backpackers and working visitors are being left to fend for themselves, amplifying the divisions already made by current circumstances.

Jupiter will continue to amplify the situations at hand and the next ‘peak’ will occur in June as Jupiter retrogrades through to 22 Capricorn, the degree of the Saturn-Pluto conjunction in January. This will revisit the escalation of matters and we will see increased social dislocation resulting from extended periods of quarantine and isolation. As a consequence of this, the enactment of even more oppressive or draconian measures to ensure compliance of new laws by the populace and also from corporate entities are set to exacerbate the situation. The disintegration of the established labour force and work model will also create a new underclass that, desperate for employment, turn their hand at what is available. We are already starting to see the beginning of this as big organizations like Amazon are hiring pilots, architects, lawyers and actors to service an increasing virtual market as face to face contact continues to be curtailed. By the end of 2020, we will start to emerge into a totally different world.

The period between 1981 and 2001 (the next and last conjunction in Earth) saw the explosion of the internet and the birth of the digital age. It also heralded a new era of communications and connection with the development of mobile phone technology, personal computers and the introduction of the .com phenomenon which fuelled a new market. It also brought about the revelation of ideologies and structures which could no longer hold their own; this was evidenced with the crumbling of the old Soviet Union and eastern bloc countries in Europe and the fall of the Berlin Wall. different world.

Jupiter Saturn Heralds a New Age

As the year draws to a close, Jupiter joins Saturn in the sign of Aquarius, heralding the beginning of a new 200 year period of Air conjunctions. What the world has been through in 2020 was the death throes of the Earth period of Jupiter Saturn conjunctions which started in 1802, presaging the birth of international capitalism and the modern labour force, organised and housed in purpose-built factories. Up to that point, most work was either agricultural or mercantile while any production or artisan work was done in the home or small workshop.

The transition from one element of the Jupiter-Saturn cycle to another is often accompanied by some sort of upheaval which sets the stage for the next 200 years. We had a glimpse of this ‘brave new world’ in 1981, when the conjunction occurred in the sign of Libra. The Jupiter-Saturn cycle has these particular blips at the aaend of the cycle, giving us mortals an inkling of what could be in store.

The cycle also revealed the underside of the Stock Market and its newly minted marriage to technology. The "Black Monday" stock market crash on the 19th October 1987 saw U.S. markets fall more than 20% in a single day. It is thought that the cause of the crash was precipitated by computer program-driven trading models that followed a portfolio insurance strategy as well as investor panic. [16] The event caused world markets to tumble and losses were estimated at $1.7 trillion US dollars. [17]

What We Can Expect

So, can we apply this ‘taste’ of the Air sign conjunctions to forecast what may be in store for this next installment? What is apparent as we limp through the crisis that is 2020 is that the world as we know it will no longer exist.

If we apply what we know of these cycles:, the tension of destructive change versus intransigent resilience (Saturn-Pluto); zealotry and excessive power versus mass influence through wealth or belief (Jupiter-Pluto); and the breakdown and reconstruction of patterns of being as well as aspirations (Jupiter-Saturn), we will possibly see the development of new industries, new ways of working and learning, and new ways of life which could include:

  • The reset of Globalization as nations become more conscious of their vulnerabilities when they rely on only one source;

  • The reinstatement of hard borders between nations as the global community retreats back to their national governments to provide sustenance and substance. This redefinition could also see the ‘re-nationalisation’ of essential service and/or industries;

  • Related to the above, greater control over outside influences in markets, property and politics.Redefinition of labor and how we work. A realization that productivity can be measured in more than just dollar terms.

  • Again related to the above, policies which encourage the development of industries which are more sensitive to, as well as supporting, the protection of the natural environment.

  • Reconstructing a social narrative which unites rather than divides.

  • Development of public policy which encourages sustainability, viability and variety in social and economic terms;

  • Development of technology to support rather than dominate or drive social and economic revival.

We can only wait and see how the events of today will translate and mold the world of tomorrow.

M Garcia Copyright April 2020


  1. "Gold standard Facts, information, pictures articles about Gold standard". Retrieved 27/12/19.

  2. The Indian sub-continent was partitioned between India and Pakistan and the establishment of both as individual sovereignties. Partition was done along sectarian lines with the predominant Muslim north forming the nexus of the new nation of Pakistan while India retained its Hindu majority. Retrieved: 31/12//19

  3. Mandate for Palestine was a geopolitical entity established by the League of Nations between 1920 and 1923 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the "Mandate for Palestine”. Britain was granted administration of the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of which had been conceded by the Ottoman Empire following World War I. was divided into two states again along sectarian lines: Israel, primarily populated by the return of a Jewish majority and Palestine, populated by a displaced Arabic-Muslim people. The historical and spiritual significance and spiritual power of the land have formed the basisfor ongoing battles in the region. Retrieved: 5/01/20.

  4. The Chinese revolution began in 1946 after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War (1945–49). In China, the revolutionary period is known as the War of Liberation. Retrieved: 2/02/20.

  5. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 189 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world. Source: Retrieved: 28/12/19.

  6. An act or instance of purging; the removal of elements or members regarded as undesirable and especially as treacherous or disloyal or no longer required.

  7. Resurrection, from the Latin noun resurrectio -onis, from the verb rego, “to make straight, rule” + preposition sub, “under”, altered to subrigo and contracted to surgo, surrexi, surrectum (“to rise”, “get up", "stand up”) + preposition re-, "again", thus literally “a straightening from under again”

  8. BBC News: Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU. Retrieved: 2/02/20

  9. CNN Politics: Retrieved: 7/03/20

  10. Ember, Sydney (7 March 2020) Bernie Sabders. The New York Times. Retrieved: 7/03/20

  11. AlJazeera. Timeline: How China’s new coronavirus spread. Retrieved: 2/02/20

  12. AlJazeera. Timeline: How China’s new coronavirus spread. Retrieved: 2/02/20

  13. Thaiger, The (9 January 2020). "Chinese scientists identify the 'Wuhan Virus'. Screening continues on Thai-bound flights". The Thaiger. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2020 as mentioned in Retrieved: 29/1/20.

  14. Other nations with this signature who gained independence or declared sovereignty include: India, Pakistan, Israel, People’s Republic of China, Palestine, Taiwan.

  15. Jupiter is in Fall in the sign of Capricorn.

  16. Segal, Troy. What Caused Black Monday: the Stock Market Crash of 1987? Retrieved: 2/04/20.

  17. Black Monday 1987. Wikipedia. Retrieved: 2/04/20

760 views0 comments


bottom of page